Total Knee Replacement Surgery
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Total Knee Replacement Surgery (TKR), also known as Knee Arthroplasty in medical terms — is performed on patients to replace the knee joint with artificial material to help relieve pain and restore normal functions of the severely diseased knee joints. TKR replaces the ends of the femur (thigh bone) and tibia (shin or main bone of the lower leg) with plastic or metal inserted between them or with the knee cap (patella). The surgery is performed to bring about relief from pain, improving the mobility of the knee to be able to pursue daily activities of the individual.
Why is Knee Replacement Surgery Necessary?
Following are the abnormalities or conditions that may lead the doctor to advise a knee replacement surgery (depending on its severity) to a patient.
- Knee Osteoarthritis
- Rheumatoid Arthritis
- Septic Arthritis
- Knee Effusion
- Anterior Cruciate Ligament
- Posterior Cruciate Ligament
- Medial Collateral Ligament
- Patellar Subluxation
- Patellar Tendonitis
- Chondromalacis Patella
Types Of Knee Replacement Surgeries
Based on the severity of the condition and diagnostic reports obtained (X-ray, MRI) the doctor will decide on performing one of the following surgeries:
Total knee replacement: The surgery involves removal of the surfaces of the thigh bone and lower leg bone (fibula) and replacement of the same with an artificial joint.
High flexion knee replacement: The High flexion knee replacement surgery aims to provide higher flexibility to the patient (a flexion of 155 degrees). The procedure can involve an additional bone resection (approximately 2mm in size).
Partial knee replacement: This is mostly done to remove partially damaged tissue or knee parts. A prosthetic replaces the damaged parts and rest of the knee is preserved. This surgery is usually performed in a laparoscopic method.
Knee cap replacement: This surgical procedure is performed when the knee cap is partially or totally damaged. The bone is partially or totally replaced with prosthetic parts depending on the severity of the knee cap damage.
Complex (or revision) knee replacement: Revision Knee Replacement surgery is performed to revise any previous knee replacements. The procedure can involve minor adjustments or a total repeat of the earlier surgery.
The doctor will choose appropriate material of the implant (such as metal, plastic, ceramic, etc) based on the weight, height, age and physical activities carried out by the patient in his daily life.
Stay of the patient in the hospital depends on the condition of the patient as well his age. Generally, after the total knee replacement surgery, the patient is kept for around five to seven days in the hospital. Within three months the patient can perform limited knee activities. With the help of physiotherapy the patient can start doing his normal activities.